Graduate Courses


Nicholas School Courses (taught in Durham):

ENVIRON 501: Environmental Toxicology                                          
Course Credit: 3
Fall | Annual
An introduction to the field of environmental toxicology. Study of environmental contaminants from a broad perspective encompassing biochemical, ecological, and toxicological principles and methodologies. Discussion of sources, environmental transport and transformation phenomena, accumulation in biota and ecosystems. Impacts at various levels of organization, particularly biochemical and physiological effects.
Prerequisites: organic chemistry and an upper-level biology course, or consent of instructor.

ENVIRON  503: Forest Ecosystems                                                    
Course Credit: 3  
Spring | Annual 
Emphasis on the processes by which forests circulate, transform, and accumulate energy and materials through interactions of biologic organisms and the forest environment. Ecosystem productivity and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients provide the basis for lecture and laboratory

ENVIRON  505: Tree Structure & Function                                           
Course Credit: 3  
Fall | Annual 
Designed primarily for graduate students and advanced undergraduates in areas of ecology, forestry or related disciplines who desire basic understanding of how plants (special focus on woody plants) function at various scales from molecules to canopies. Course will facilitate application of plant physiological principles in the students' specific areas of interest. Focus is on responses of water loss and carbon gain of plants to variation in their environment. Background in biology preferred.

ENVIRON 517: Tropical Ecology                                                        
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Ecosystem, community, and population ecology of tropical plants and animals with application to conservation and sustainable development. Prerequisite: a course in general ecology.

ENVIRON 520: Resource & Environmental Economics I                        
Course Credit: 1.5     
Fall | Annual            
Part 1 of a survey course in environmental and natural resource economics. Part 1 focuses on basic theory and methods of economic analysis of environmental problems including benefit-cost analysis, non-market valuation, and instrument choice. Prerequisite: Introductory course in microeconomics and one semester of calculus.

ENVIRON 521: Resource & Environmental Economics II                       
Course Credit: 1.5     
Fall | Annual            
Part 2 of a survey course in environmental and natural resource economics. Part 2 focuses on basic theory and methods of economic analysis of natural resource problems including extraction of non-renewable resources over time, fisheries economics and forest economics.
Prerequisite: ENVIRON 520

ENVIRON 524: Water Quality Health                                                 
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Explore basic concepts of water quality and human health with focus on the global water cycle, global water demand and availability, chemical properties of water, contaminants in water, health implications, and environmental isotope hydrology. Highlights relationships between human activities, water scarcity, water quality degradation, and ecological and health consequences. Addresses some policy implications related to conflicts over water resources and impact of energy production on water resources.
Prerequisites: prior knowledge of introductory calculus and chemistry or consent of instructor.

ENVIRON 531: Economic Valuation of the Environment                       
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Quantitative course with focus on economic valuation of changes in environmental quality. Covers theoretical foundations of major nonmarket valuation methods and, through a series of problem sets, provides opportunities to develop skills applying those methods. Also covers a range of regression methods commonly employed in valuation studies.
Prerequisite: ENVIRON 520 or equivalent and ENVIRON 710 or equivalent.

ENVIRON 532: Evaluation of Public Expenditures                                
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Basic development of cost benefit analysis from alternative points of view, for example, equity debt, and economy as a whole. Techniques include: construction of cash flows, alternative investment rules, inflation adjustments, optimal timing and duration of projects, private and social pricing. Adjustments for economic distortions, foreign exchange adjustments, risk and income distribution examined in the context of present value rules. Examples and cases from both developed and developing countries.

ENVIRON 535: Air Quality Management                                            
Course Credit: 3        
FALL or Spring | Annual            
Types, sources, effects of air pollutants. Regulatory framework emphasizing the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and federal, state, local agency implementation. Application of risk assessment, technology, market incentives to air management. Scientific, policy aspects of acid deposition, global climate change, indoor air, mobile sources control. Dispersion modeling, exposure assessment.

ENVIRON 537: Environmental Health                                                
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Introduction to environmental effects on human health, as well as ecological health. Focus on chronic effects of exposure to pollution on key health endoints including cancer, neurological health, reproduction and development, cardiovascular and pulmonary health, the interaction between anthropogenic environmental changes and infectious diseases, and the relationship between human health and ecosystem health. Includes lectures from a variety of experts in this field from throughout the Triangle region. Course is designed to facilitate maximum student participation through discussion. For graduate and advanced undergraduate students.

ENVIRON 538: Global Environmental Health: Economics & Policy          
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Social science perspective on global environmental health. Students will learn to identify primary environmental causes of high burden diseases such as malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections; describe how to measure socio-economic impacts of global environmental health diseases; discuss key policies to control global environmental health problems based on private prevention and therapeutic behaviors; and propose frameworks to empirically monitor and evaluate global environmental health policies. A sub-module will focus on climate change and water-borne diseases.
Prerequisites: Introductory course in statistics.

ENVIRON 539: Human Health & Ecological Risk Assessment                
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Topics central to both health and ecological risk assessment are explored. Basic concepts of hazard identification, dose-response relationships, exposure assessment, and risk characterization and communication are discussed in the context of both human health and environmental assessment. The basis and rationale for using specific, as well as extrapolated, scientific information and expert judgment, and the strengths and weaknesses of alternative approaches, are evaluated. Applications emphasizing real cases are used to illustrate the interdisciplinary process and products of risk assessment, as well as the regulatory use of the information. Group projects emphasized.

ENVIRON 540: Chemical Fate of Organic Compounds                         
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Equilibrium, kinetic, and analytical approaches applied to quantitative description of processes affecting the distribution and fate of anthropogenic and natural organic compounds in surface and groundwaters, including chemical transfers between air, water, soils/sediments, and biota; and thermochemical and photochemical transformations. The relationships between organic compound structure and environmental behavior will be emphasized. Sampling, detection, identification, and quantification of organic compounds in the environment.
Prerequisites: university-level general chemistry and organic chemistry within last four years.

ENVIRON 542L: Environmental Aquatic Chemistry                                
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Principles of chemical equilibria and kinetics applied to quantitative chemical description of natural and engineered aquatic systems. Topics include acid/base equilibrium, the carbonate system, metal complexation, oxidation/reduction reactions, precipitation/dissolution of minerals, and surface absorption.

ENVIRON 543 S: Water Cooperation & Conflict                                     
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Focuses on potential for transboundary water resources-related conflict and cooperation. Discusses water scarcity concepts, natural resource conflict theory, hydro politics, hydro hegemony, water security, water markets and institutions, game theory, and international water law. Other topics include the economics of water and health. Case studies complement the broader course outlook.

ENVIRON 544 S: Collective Action, Property Rights, and the Environment 
Course Credit: 3        
FALL or Spring | Annual            
The rational choice tradition (public goods, collective action, game theory, property rights, new institutionalism) as applied to environmental problems, resource exploitation, environmental justice, and the design of an environmentally sound society.

ENVIRON 549: California Water Crises: A Case Study Approach           
Course Credit: 3        
FALL or Spring | Annual            
Reviews history of California's water dependent economy, leading to a capture, storage system with conveyances extending thousands of miles to deliver water for agriculture, industry and homes. Examines recent political change coupled with chronic issues of a water-rich north, an expanding urban population and a water-poor but politically strong south. Emphasis includes climate change, seismic vulnerability, redirection of river flows, and large scale water reuse. Course will cover specific water crises in other states and nations, providing in depth coverage of aspects of the international crisis in quantity and quality of freshwater.

ENVIRON 550: Land Use Principles and Policy                                    
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Every Other Year           
Consideration of four major roles of land in the United States: as a producer of commodities, financial asset, component of environmental systems, and location of development. Analysis of market allocation of land, market failure, role of public planning and regulation.

ENVIRON 552: Climate & Society                                                     
Course Credit: 3        
Fall or Spring | Annual            
Advanced, interdisciplinary course on causes, consequences, and future trajectory of climate change. Course will cover physical observations of past climate change, role of human activities in driving climate change to date, and impacts of climate change on human and natural systems. Course will analyze how socioeconomic choices affects future climate as well as factors influencing those choices, including risk analyses, geoengineering proposals, intergenerational equity, climate metrics and the media.

ENVIRON 556: Environmental Conflict Resolution                               
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Practical techniques and scholarly underpinnings of environmental conflict resolution, including interest-based negotiation, mediation, public disputes, science-intensive disputes, and negotiation analysis. In-class time will be spent conducting negotiation role plays of increasing complexity and then debriefing them. Outside of class, students will prepare for the role plays and read background material to aid in debriefing. Students will keep a journal of their experiences.
Consent of instructor required.

ENVIRON 557: Social Science Surveys for Environmental Management  
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Social science research methods for collecting data for environmental management and policy analysis. Sampling, survey design, focus groups, pretesting, survey implementation, coding, and data analysis. Team projects emphasize development and practice of survey skills. Prerequisite: introductory applied statistics or equivalent.

ENVIRON 559: Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems and Geospatial Analysis                 
Course Credit: 4            
Fall | Annual
Fundamental aspects of geographic information systems and satellite remote sensing for environmental applications. Covers concepts of geographic data development, cartography, image processing, and spatial analysis. Gateway into more advanced training in geospatial analysis curriculum. Consent of instructor required.

ENVIRON 563: Cost-Benefit Analysis for Health and Environmental Policy  
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Course considers the importance of economic analysis, or cost-benefit analysis (CBA), for public policy assessments. Specific focus is on health and environmental policy, and the steps in identification / cataloguing, quantification, and monetization of impacts of potential policies and projects. Covers: Economic rationale for CBA; Basic principles for assessing the economic effects of projects; Techniques for valuing health and environmental impacts; Intergenerational/philosophical concerns related to CBA; Social discounting; Risk and uncertainty; Comparisons of CBA with other approaches (i.e. cost effectiveness analysis, multi-objective analysis).

ENVIRON 564: Biogeochemistry                                                       
Course Credit: 3        
Fall or Spring | Annual            
Processes controlling the circulation of carbon and biochemical elements in natural ecosystems and at the global level, with emphasis on soil and surficial processes. Topics include human impact on and social consequences of greenhouse gases, ozone, and heavy metals in the environment.
Prerequisite: Chemistry 101DL or equivalent; Recommended: Chemistry 210DL.

ENVIRON 565S: Stormwater Science: Pollution, Pavement, and Precipitation          
Course Credit: 3                       
Spring | Annual
Examines pollution emissions/deposition, impervious surfaces, evapotranspiration, groundwater, stormwater runoff, nutrients, thermal pollution, and freshwater effects. Uses primary literature, as well as a couple of books. Also examines "stormwater control measures" that mitigate problems. Student-driven course: Reading, presenting, and discussing primary literature, asking/answering questions in class, and seeking answers. Course designed for graduate and advanced undergraduate students.
Prerequisites: one course in Ecology or Environmental Science or instructor consent.

ENVIRON 566: Environmental Analytical Chemistry                             
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
This course covers the fundamentals and applications of analytical chemistry as applied to detection, identification, and quantification of anthropogenic contaminants in environmental samples including air, water, soil, sediment, and biota. The topics include both sample preparation methods (i.e. wet chemistry) and instrumental analysis (e.g. mass spectrometry, chromatography, and optical spectroscopy). Particular emphasis is placed on current advancements in measurement science as applied to environmental chemistry. The material includes both theoretical and practical aspects of environmental analysis.
Prerequisite: CHEM 131 or CHEM 151L or consent of instructor.

ENVIRON 569: Should I Eat Fish? Economics, Ecology and Health         
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Examines role that individual consumer can play in promoting marine conservation. Course considers array of issues that confront seafood consumers and tradeoffs that only an informed consumer can assess. In context of evaluating seafood students will learn to evaluate tradeoffs systematically, assess how different policy options affect incentives for users and polluters. This process allows students to place consumer initiatives in context of other approaches to marine conservation. Interdisciplinary approach but economic themes will inform course. Course intended for Master of Environmental Management students, but open to advanced undergraduates with permission. This course is intended for MEM students and is based on a Marine Conservation Leadership Certificate capstone course offered previously to undergraduates. Advanced undergraduates permitted pending space availability.

ENVIRON 572: Economic Evaluation of Sustainable Development         
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Examines how one could rationally defend a choice of 'sustainable development' policy. Applies cost-benefit thinking in environment-natural-resources and development contexts. Presents microeconomic concepts emphasizing logic and principles more than mechanics. Intertemporal equity is a focus and equity-efficiency tradeoffs are a theme. Microeconomics prerequisite not required.

ENVIRON 577: Environmental Politics                                               
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Environmental policy formation and implementation in comparative perspective. Topics include interest groups, environmental movements and parties, public opinion, political systems and institutions. Case students selected from the United States and other advanced industrialized countries and the developing world.

ENVIRON 579 S: Collective Action, Environment, and Development         
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Examines the conditions under which collective or participatory decisions may raise welfare in defined ways. Presents the growing empirical evidence for an environment and development setting including common property issues (tragedy of the commons and competing models). Identifies what evidence exists for sharing norms on a background of self-interested strategies. Definitions of and reactions to equity and/or its absence are a focus. Providing scientific information for policy is another. Experimental and behavioral economics are frequently applied.

ENVIRON 590: Special Topics                                                          
Course Credit: tbd    
Fall & Spring | Annual          
Content to be determined each semester. May be repeated.

ENVIRON 590: Sustainable Cities and Urban Design                           
Course Credit: 3        
Fall or Spring | Every Other Year      
This course addresses urban form and the design of cities in the context of increasing clarity in the linkages between patterns of human settlement and indicators of sustainability. Historical considerations inform our exploration, but those considerations are secondary to developing: 1) knowledge of influencing factors in urban design, 2) an understanding of the experiential aspects of urban form, and 3) familiarity with and an ability to critique contemporary planning and urban design practices. The intended benefits of the course are to develop a broad sense of forces that have influenced the making of cities, particularly forces that remain influential to today’s practitioner, and to couple that understanding with a sense of design as an intentional act in advancing the sustainability of human settlements. Students should complete the course with 1) a high-level familiarity of generative forces in the shaping of human settlements especially in recent generations, 2) a fluency with precedents in urban design and analysis, and 3) an understanding of contemporary planning and design practices in sustainable urbanism. In its breadth, the course is a survey rather than an exhaustive study of any single component or characteristic of the built environment.

ENVIRON 593: Independent Studies and Projects                              
Course Credit: TBD    
Fall & Spring | Annual     
Directed readings or research at the graduate level to meet the needs of individual students.
Consent of instructor required.

ENVIRON 621: Water Resources, Finance and Planning                      
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Introductory course to water in the built environment, with basic treatment of hydrology, treatment, regulation, and planning of water resources. Course will serve as a survey course for non-water specialists, and a bridge course from hydrology to policy, management, planning, and finance, or vice versa for policy students interested in bridging to hydrology. Emphasis will be on applications of basic techniques common in management contexts.

ENVIRON 624: Agriculture and Sustainability: Feeding the Growing Human Population Today for the Future            
Course Credit: 3      
Spring | Annual                                                           
Introduces agroecology through basic scientific knowledge of plant physiology and growth for crop production, crop diversity and breeding, and comparison of agricultural practices (industrial, subsistence, organic, sustainable). Covers resources needed for whole-plant growth, biomass output for human use including bioenergy, and impacts on ecosystems. Examines environmental sustainability through assessment of drawbacks and benefits of agricultural practices for human food and biofuel production. Applications include management plan for sustainable agroecosystems and forecast of crop agricultural practices in need of a future altered environment.
Prerequisites: Intro Biology or Ecology.

ENVIRON 626: River Processes                                                        
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Course focuses on river processes and how rivers change and how to analyze rivers. Course is a mixture of hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology. Focus is on quantitative analysis of processes using simple modeling approaches. Problems will be drawn from policy and river management applications such as river restoration, channel design, dam management, and floodplain regulation.

ENVIRON 627: Molecular Ecology                                                     
Course Credit: 3        
Spring or Fall| Annual            
Explore use of molecular tools to investigate ecological processes within natural populations and communities from terrestrial to marine. Emphasis on fundamental principles and predictions from ecological and evolutionary theory, as well as historical approaches and precedents. In addition to exploring very basic ecological questions, course discusses interpretation of molecular datasets to evalute applied ecological problems with societal implications (e.g., conservation, antibiotic resistance, genetically modified crops, adaptation to climate change). Open to graduate students, and upper-level undergraduates with backgrounds in ecology and/or molecular biology.

ENVIRON 630: Transportation & Energy                                            
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Examination of transportation-related energy use and its impact on the environment. Learn how technology, infrastructure, and policy, as well as personal and cultural preferences, interact to meet demands for personal mobility and freight movement. Cutting across these themes will be consideration of strategies to reduce transportation energy use and its environmental impacts, with an introduction to information resources and tools for evaluating both. Provides opportunities to hone problem solving and analytical skills, and challenges students to think critically and creatively about the trade-offs among complex transportation options.

ENVIRON 631: Energy Technology and Impact on the Environment      
Course Credit: 3        
Fall or Spring | Annual            
Efficiencies and environmental impacts of both new and established energy sources and conversion methods. Consideration of alternative energy technologies, including electricity generation by fossil fuels, nuclear, solar, wind and water; space heating and cooling by traditional methods and by solar; and transportation energy in automobiles, mass transit and freight. Environmental consequences of energy choices on local, national and global scales, including toxic emissions, greenhouse gases and resource depletion.
Prerequisite: ENVIRON 330 or ENVIRON 711. Instructor consent required.

ENVIRON 635: Energy Economics and Policy                                      
Course Credit: 1.5     
Fall or Spring | Annual            
Economics of markets and policies for various energy supply sources, energy demand and efficiency, their interactions with each other, and with the economy and environment. Will explore rationales for why markets for energy and related technologies have been subject to extensive government intervention. Course will analyze effects of policy responses, including energy price regulation, the interface of energy, environmental, and technology policy, and policy motivated by energy security concerns.
Prerequisites: Introductory Microeconomics (Economics 101 or equivalent) and college calculus.

ENVIRON 637 S: Population and Environmental Dynamics Influencing Health         
Course Credit: 3                       
Spring | Annual
Course examines population, health and environment (PHE) dynamics with focus on interactions in developing or transition economies. Theoretical and empirical approaches governing PHE dynamics from multidisciplinary perspectives, including geography, public health /epidemiology, demography, and economics. Students will obtain experience in design and analysis of PHE studies, and epidemiology of vector-born, chronic and enteric infections.

ENVIRON 638 L: Environmental Life Cycle Analysis & Decision                
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Provides theoretical foundations of environmental life cycle assessment tools and methods used for products and global supply chains. Introduces various life cycle inventory and life cycle assessment tools used by the community of scientists and industry.
Instructor consent required.

ENVIRON 640: Climate Change Economics                                        
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
This course explores the economic characteristics of the climate change problem, assesses national and international policy design and implementation issues, and surveys the economic tools necessary to evaluate climate change policies. Discussion-oriented requiring high degree of student participation. Course objectives are increased comprehension of economic aspects of climate change and ability to apply tools of economic analysis to climate policy and the responses of firms and households to it. Course designed for graduate and advanced undergraduate students.

ENVIRON 642: Air Pollution: From Sources to Health Effects                
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Both urban outdoor air pollution and household indoor air pollution contribute significantly to global burden of disease. Course covers fundamentals about how major air pollutants are generated and transported in the atmosphere and how these pollutants affect human health. Relevant exposure assessment, toxicology and epidemiology case studies are discussed. Prerequisites: general chemistry; introductory-level statistics.

ENVIRON 646: Urban Ecology                                                          
Course Credit: 3        
Occassional | Every Other Year       
Addresses how to understand urban areas as ecological and socio-ecological systems and the distinction between the study of ecology in and of cities. Examines both through theoretical lens of socio-ecological systems, in which humans and their actions are a component of, rather than disturbance imposed on, ecological systems. Applies theoretical and methodological tools to global, regional, and local urban issues.
Prerequisites: One ecology course and one environmental social sciences course.

ENVIRON 658: Applied Qualitative Research Methods                         
Course Credit: 3        
Fall or Spring | Annual            
Broadly covers qualitative and mixed methods research design, analysis, and interpretation. Students gather a limited amount of their own data and produce a pilot research project throughout the semester. Students learn to use NVivo10, a qualitative research software program.

ENVIRON 665: Bayesian Inference for Environmental Models               
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Variable         
Formulation of environmental models and applications to data using R. Distribution theory, algorithms, and implementation. Topics include physiology, population growth, species interactions, disturbance, and ecosystem dynamics. Discussions focus on classical and current primary literature.

ENVIRON 666: Aquatic Geochemistry                                                
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Geochemistry of the water-solid interface of soils, minerals, and particles in earth systems. Topics will cover the chemical composition of soils, geochemical specalation, mineral weathering and stability, sorption and ion exchange, soil redox processes, and chemical kinetics at environmental surfaces.
Prerequisites: CEE 461L or CEE 561L/ENVIRON 542L or permission of instructor.

ENVIRON 678: Population Ecology for a Changing Planet                    
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Variable          
Overview of the expanding field of population ecology, including the use of new bioinfomatic tools to study topics such as the impacts of climate change on population dynamics, population growth and regulation, adaptive evolution, and emerging diseases. Lecture and discussion of case studies will evaluate current knowledge and productive research directions, highlighting analysis of observational and experimental data sets.
Prerequisites: introductory statistics and calculus.

ENVIRON 680: Economics of Forest Resources                                   
Course Credit: 1.5     
Fall | Annual            
Core economic theory of forest management and application of theory to selected forestry policy issues. Course focuses on management of forests for timber production as well as for non-timber values. Concepts explored include policy challenges such as biodiversity conservation, deforestation, community forest management, and payments for ecosystem services. Two groups of economic tools will be used: non-market valuation methods and program evaluation techniques.
Prerequisites: college-level calculus, microeconomics and statistics, as well as Excel proficiency.

ENVIRON 701: Forest Measurements                                                
Course Credit: 4        
Fall | Annual            
Course is designed to provide field and analytical measurement skills expected of professionals working in forest ecosystem management. Additional emphasis on habitat assessment and forest vegetation and wildlife identification. Extensive field work required.

ENVIRON 703: Conservation Biology: Theory and Practice                   
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
An overview of biological diversity, its patterns, and the current extinction crisis. Historical and theoretical foundations of conservation, from human values and law to criteria and frameworks for setting conservation priorities; island biogeography theory, landscape ecology, and socioeconomic considerations in reserve design; management of endangered species in the wild and in captivity; managing protected areas for long term viability of populations; the role of the landscape matrix around protected areas; and techniques for conserving biological diversity in semiwild productive ecosystems like forests. Three field trips.

ENVIRON 705 L: Ecological Management of Forest Systems (Silviculture) 
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
The aim of the course is to equip future resource managers and environmental consultants with knowledge allowing them to propose lower impact practices to individuals and organizations who need to balance wood production with maintenance of environmental quality. Underlying principles of growth, from seed to mature trees, and stand dynamics are explored. Various alternative methods of manipulating growth, stand structure and development, ranging from little to large perturbations of forest systems, are presented and assessed in terms of their effect on resource quality. Includes laboratory.

ENVIRON 706: Wildlife Surveys                                                        
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
With a focus on birds, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals, this course introduces students to a wide variety of wildlife survey methods and skills through both classroom lectures and hands-on experience in the field. Design, practical application, and post-survey data analyses for conducting wildlife surveys for research as well as for management. Limitations and advantages of various field monitoring techniques; learn to identify many common birds, herps, and mammals of season for this area. Significant time spent in the field.

ENVIRON 708: Silviculture Prescription                                              
Course Credit: 2        
Spring | Annual            
Professional foresters meet management objectives through stand manipulation by using appropriate methods. Silviculture prescription is an operational plan that describes the goals, the silvicultural manipulations needed to achieve these goals, and the development of the stands over the projected period. Facing diverse management objectives and stand conditions, success in this planning process depends on understanding the underlying principles of tree growth and stand dynamics, but also relies on the intuitive knowledge that aids in assessing stand conditions and future development. Class is designed to provide the practical experience needed for developing the intuitive knowledge.

ENVIRON 710: Applied Data Analysis for Environmental Sciences         
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Graphical and exploratory data analysis; modeling, estimation, and hypothesis testing; analysis of variance; random effect models; regression and scatterplot smoothing; generalized linear models; resampling and randomization methods. Concepts and tools involved in data analysis. Special emphasis on examples drawn from the social and environmental sciences. Students to be involved in applied work through statistical computing using software, STATA or R.

ENVIRON 711: Energy and Environment                                            
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Overview of the challenges confronting humanity as a consequence of our reliance on energy. Challenges include dwindling supplies, rising demand and environmental degradation. Realistic responses require an understanding of the complexity of the energy system, including energy resources, uses, and impacts, in the context of social, political and economic imperatives. Lectures will be augmented by presentations from guest speakers from industry, government and non-profit organizations.

ENVIRON 712 A: Hydrocarbons: Production to Policy Seminar                 
Course Credit: 1        
Fall | Annual            
Field study of hydrocarbons production in and around Houston, Texas, with first-hand perspective of oil and gas from industry experts. Includes a field trip with a required fee for the trip.

ENVIRON 713 A: Clean Energy Field Trip                                              
Course Credit: 1        
Spring | Annual            
Field study of the clean energy industry around the San Francisco Bay area, California, with first-hand perspective from renewable energy experts. Includes a field trip with a required fee for the trip.

ENVIRON 714: Landscape Ecology                                                    
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Landscape ecology embraces spatial heterogeneity in ecosystems: how spatial pattern arises, how it changes through time, and its implications for populations, communities, and ecosystem processes. Course adopts task-oriented perspective, emphasizing concepts and tools for habitat classification, inventory and monitoring, modeling and interpreting landscape change, and site prioritization for conservation or restoration. Prerequisites: an intermediate course in ecology; introductory statistics helpful but not required.

ENVIRON 715 L: Understanding Energy Models and Modeling                 
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Course aims to nurture basic modeling literacy by focusing on widely-used class of "bottom-up," optimization-based, energy models commonly used for economic, environmental, and technology assessments. Students will gain practical experience searching for relevant modeling data, constructing scenarios, and running an energy model. Will gain a working knowledge of model mechanics and experience asking the type of questions needed to evaluate quality of modeling results.

ENVIRON 716 L: Modeling for Energy Systems                                     
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Introduction to computer programming and operations research in energy systems analysis with emphasis on formulation of optimization problems and simulation models. Applications and case studies dealing with energy systems problems, their externalities, and government policies that affect them.Data analysis, spreadsheet modeling, VBA programming in Excel; linear programming (lp), post-optimality and sensitivity analysis, multi-period lp, stochastic lp, network models for minimum path, maximum flow and optimal planning problems; probabilistic analysis Monte Carlo simulation, including generation of independent and correlated random variables, and goodness of fit tests.

ENVIRON 717: Markets for Electric Power                                           
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Examines basic concepts and tools in economics and engineering necessary to understand the operation of power markets. Includes physical systems; industry structure and economic models to understand the supply side; operational reliability; long-term reliability; and, integration of renewables.

ENVIRON 720 S: Land Conservation in Practice                                     
Course Credit: 1        
Occasionally | Odd Years      
Provides an overview of the applied skills and techniques currently used to conserve land in the land trust movement. covers a variety of topics from setting priorities for conservation, completing land transactions, working with private landowners, fundraising, land monitoring and stewardship, evaluating conservation success, etc. Course leverages the experience of guest speakers from regional land trust and conservation organizations to provide working examples of how land conservation is done.

ENVIRON 721 L: Soil Resources                                                         
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Emphasis on soil resources as central components of terrestrial ecosystems, as rooting environments for plants, and as porous media for water. Soil physics and chemistry provide the basis for the special problems examined through the course. Laboratory emphasizes field and lab skills, interpretive and analytical.

ENVIRON 722: Hydrologic and Environmental Data Analysis                 
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Course will focus on acquisition of skills necessary to extract information from observations of hydrological and environmental processes, connect the extracted information with the physical processes generating the data, and estimate physical quantities at ungauged location/times. Emphasis on process understanding via data analysis techniques. Applications used as a way to understand the general concepts, with examples drawn from water science.
Prerequisites: Basic computer skills, Algebra, Calculus are required. Experience with computational software (e.g. Matlab or R) is helpful but not required.

ENVIRON 724: Landscape Analysis & Management                             
Course Credit: 4        
Spring | Annual            
This course is a task-oriented perspective on landscape ecology and management. The tasks include habitat classification, sampling designs for inventory and monitoring, site selection and prioritization, modeling landscape change, and integrated assessment. These practical tasks are couched in the logical framework of adaptive management. Course consists of lectures and hands-on exercises in the computer lab.

ENVIRON 727: Forests in the Public Interest Seminar                         
Course Credit: 1        
Fall | Annual            
Discussion and analysis of current forestry issues of concern to the public, both in U.S. and abroad. Students propose discussion topics by identifying forest-related news stories reported in leading print or online sources during the current calendar year. The topics are discussed in two parts. First, students review the information reported in the news stories and generate a series of questions for additional analysis. Each student then investigates one of the questions before the next class meeting and reports his or her findings to the group. Particular themes (e.g., forest health, wildlife) might be highlighted in particular years. May be taken up to three times for credit.

ENVIRON 728: Fire Ecology and Management Seminar                       
Course Credit: 1        
Fall or Spring | Every Other       
A wide range of wildland and forest fire seminars are organized for students to interact with leaders in the wide variety of environmental fields that work with fire issues: ecological science of fires, prescribed, fire, fire behavior, fire on federal and state public lands, fire economics, fire and restoration, and fire in history and in the future.

ENVIRON 734 L: Watershed Hydrology                                                
Course Credit: 4        
Fall | Annual            
Introduction to the hydrologic cycle with emphasis on the influence of land use, vegetation, soil types, climate, and land forms on water quantity and quality and methods for control. Development of water balance models. Analysis of precipitation patterns, rainfall and runoff, and nonpoint source impacts. Statistical handling and preparation of hydrologic data, simulation and prediction models, introduction to groundwater flow, laboratory and field sampling methods.

ENVIRON 737: Environmental Education and Interpretation                 
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Course will provide students with foundational knowledge and practical communication skills drawn from five schools of environmental education (EE): natural resource interpretation, science education, European approaches to EE, placed-based learning, and nature connectedness. Through readings, program observations, practicums, and instructor- and peer-based evaluations, students learn to evaluate their audience, develop measurable goals for communication, and refine their presentation skills. Students will also be able to adapt presentations and programs based on the five school of EE addressed in class. Students successfully completing course will become NAI Certified Interpretive Guides.

ENVIRON 739: Our Changing Atmosphere: From Air Pollution to Climate Change 
Course Credit: 3                       
Occasional (Fall) | Annual
A broad overview of the science of oxidant chemistry in the atmosphere. Basic physical and chemical concepts relevant to the understanding of atmospheric chemistry; several contemporary topics discussed from a process-level perspective. Topics include atmospheric structure and chemical composition; atomic structure and chemical bonds; chemical thermodynamics and kinetics; atmospheric radiation and photochemistry, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone chemistry; aqueous-phase atmospheric chemistry; atmospheric aerosols; and air quality modeling.
Prerequisites: one college-level course each in chemistry and calculus.

ENVIRON 744: Ecology and Conservation of Streams and Rivers          
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Overview of ecological processes in flowing waters and application to conservation and management of these ecosystems. Lecture and discussion formats to integrate basic principles governing physical, chemical, and biological structure of streams and rivers with anthropogenic drivers of change and policy and management tools. Laboratories will provide hands-on experience in collection and analysis of physical, chemical, and biological data. Field and literature projects will enable students to focus on either basic or applied analysis techniques.

ENVIRON 750: Genomics of Microbial Diversity                                   
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Graduate seminar explores the use of genomic approaches to illuminate microbial diversity and to clarify mechanisms generating variation within and among microbial lineages and communities. Course is targeted to Ph.D. students in the areas of genomics, genetics, environmental sciences, ecology, and/or computational biology. Discussions will focus on case studies from the primary literature, followed by computer labs allowing hands-on use of current programs.

ENVIRON 752: Sustainability and Renewable Resource Economics        
Course Credit: 3        
Spring or Fall | Annual            
Economic theories of sustainability, contrasted with other scientific views. Focus on renewable resource economics, modeling, and management.
Prerequisite: Environment 520.

ENVIRON 755: Community-based Environmental Management            
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Goal of the course is to provide students with fundamental theory and methods that will allow them to identify some of the potential problems and pitfalls associated with community-based environmental management (CBEM) initiatives, both domestically and internationally, along with tools necessary to create and manage their own projects. To accomplish this, course will combine readings and discussion of academic literature with presentations of specific CBEM case studies, guest speakers, and interactions with local CBEM projects.

ENVIRON 756: Spatio-Temporal Environmental Models                       
Course Credit: 2        
Spring | Annual            
Spatio-temporal models are now being widely used for inference on environmental data. This course will consist of weekly topics with readings of new literature and application of models and software to data sets. We will specifically focus on spBayes in R. Students will each volunteer to lead one week, track down and distribute a data set, set up a model and provide a short demo on computation.

ENVIRON 757: Current Issues in Protected Area Management             
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional | Every Other Year       
Principles of management of protected areas. Topics vary and include wilderness, national park, or international protected areas. Focus on legal and historical frameworks, ecological and social issues, and development and practical application of terrestrial protected area management techniques. Lecture and class discussion of topics. Required 1-day field trip to NC wilderness area. Undergraduates may enroll by permission of instructor.
Prerequisite: introductory ecology.

ENVIRON 760 A: Western Field Trip                                                    
Course Credit: 1        
Spring | Annual            
One-week trip to observe land management and utilization practices in the western United States. Exposure to ecological, economic, and policy issues, as well as watershed, wildlife, and land use questions. May be repeated for credit.
Consent of instructor required.

ENVIRON 761: Geospatial Analysis for Conservation Management       
Course Credit: 4        
Spring | Annual            
Application course focusing on spatial analysis and image processing applications to support conservation management. Habitat mapping, spatial analysis of animal movements, habitat modeling, and the optimization of nature reserve selection. Requires a fundamental knowledge of geospatial analysis theory and analysis tools.
Consent of instructor required.

ENVIRON 762: Environmental Mega-Trends                                       
Course Credit: 1.5     
Fall | Annual            
Course investigates major, over-arching trends in environmental science, policy, thought, and practice and likely trajectories for the coming 25 years. Goal is to understand these trends and assess how changes in the environment might impact - and be impacted by - society, from the scale of individual decisions to global economies. Individual topics driven by emerging issues that are of most pressing interest but also that may not have immediately obvious connections to contemporary environmental discussions.

ENVIRON 763: Forest Management Traveling Seminar                        
Course Credit: 1        
Fall or Spring | Annual            
Covers current topics in the broad field of forest management. Taught as a set of coordinated field trips with expert contacts in sites in the Carolina piedmont, coastal plain, and mountains. Topics of past seminars include fiber utilization, best management practices, forest regeneration, the chip mill issue, forest-pest management, and forest preservation management. May be repeated for credit.

ENVIRON 764: Applied Differential Equations in Environmental Sciences
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
General calculus and analytic geometry review; numerical differentiation and integration; analytic and exact methods for first and second order ordinary differential equations (ODE); introduction to higher order linear ODE, numerical integration of ODEs and systems of ODEs; extension of Euler's method to partial differential equations (PDE) with special emphasis on parabolic PDE. Example applications include population forecasting, soil-plant-atmosphere water flow models, ground water and heat flow in soils, and diffusion of gases from leaves into the atmosphere.
Prerequisite: Mathematics 21 or equivalent or consent of instructor.

ENVIRON 765: Geospatial Analysis for Coastal and Marine Management   
Course Credit: 4        
Spring | Annual            
Application course focusing on spatial analysis and image processing applications to support coastal and marine management. Covers benthic habitat mapping, spatial analysis of marine animal movements, habitat modeling, optimization of marine protected areas. Requires fundamental knowledge of geospatial analysis theory and analysis tools.
Consent of instructor required.

ENVIRON 766 A: Ecology of Southern Appalachian Forests                     
Course Credit: 1        
Fall or Spring | Annual            
Field trips to various forest ecosystems in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Species identification, major forest types, field sampling, and history of effects of human activities.
Consent of instructor required.

ENVIRON 767: Entrepreneurial Experience                                         
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Teaches marketing, finance and business planning within the context of forming a start-up. Core concepts include: establishing a value proposition; identifying an opportunity; intellectual property and technology management; marketing & financing a start-up; and exiting a company. The course has a technology focus, but many of the concepts apply to any start-up activity. Students will form teams to go through all the steps required to form a business, stopping short of executing legal agreements to do so. The experience is an ideal springboard for students who want to start a company or be part of an early-stage company in the future.

ENVIRON 768: GIS for Water Quantity and Quality Assessment           
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Spatial analysis and image processing applications to support water resources management: water quality, flooding, and water supply primarily at watershed scale. Topics include water resources data modeling, terrain modeling and processing, river and watershed network analysis, and geospatial modeling of hydrologic processes. Knowledge of geospatial analysis theory and analysis tools.

ENVIRON 769: Hydrologic Modeling for Water Quantity and Quality Assessment   
Course Credit: 3                       
Fall | Annual
Hydrologic modeling concerns itself with understanding and prediction of different components of the hydrologic cycle by solving abstract representations of respective hydrologic processes. Students acquire an in-depth understanding of how and where hydrologic models can be used, and will be prepared to address water quantity and quality problems using computer models. Course will discuss in detail the assumptions, limitations and uncertainty associated with different modeling strategies. Course addresses both surface and ground water processes. Models discussed in course include TopModel, Stanford Watershed Model, HEC-HMS, SWAT, HSPF, RUSLE, SPARROW, PIHM, etc.

ENVIRON 771 L: GIS Field Skills                                                         
Course Credit: 2        
Spring | Annual            
Covers integration of GPS and GIS technology for field data collection. Data is set up in ArcGIS in lab, exported to GPS units, field data to be collected, and imported back to GIS system. ArcGIS Personal Geodatabase is the fundamental data structure. Course covers data accuracy and precision and how to use base stations to correct data differentially for highest possible accuracy. Will discuss how to determine what GPS unit is necessary for project accuracy needs.
Prerequisite: Environment 559.

ENVIRON 775: Ocean and Coastal Law and Policy                              
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Variable         
Explores law, policies and attitudes that affect US ocean and coastal resources. Using case studies and other materials, examines use, management and protection of coasts and oceans. Government and private sector approaches to ocean and coastal resources such as, wetlands, estuaries, beaches, reefs, fisheries, endangered species and special areas.

ENVIRON 780: Environmental Exposure Analysis                                
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Course will explore different routes by which people are exposed to contaminants through daily behaviors including exposure factors, inhalation exposure, dietary exposure, water exposures, statistical methods. Various experimental techniques used to measure exposure will be introduced, reviewed and discussed; will also explore statistical approaches used to evaluate variables contributing to exposure. Students will gain thorough understanding of how to develop an effective exposure assessment experiment and how to use various mathematical models to quantify this exposure.
Prerequisites: ENVIRON 710 statistics; college level general chemistry, or consent of instructor. Instructor: Zhang and Stapleton

ENVIRON 782: Foundations of Environmental Entrepreneurship            
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Focus of course is foundations of entrepreneurial activity within the context of environmental science and policy. Course concentrates on new enterprises based on substantial technology innovations with potential for high growth and funding by venture capitalists. Format is readings, lectures and case discussion with practical exposure to all basic operational tools required to start up and operate a company.

ENVIRON 790: Special Topics                                                          
Course Credit: tbd    
Fall & Spring | Annual           
Content to be determined each semester. May be repeated.

ENVIRON 791: Independent Studies and Projects                              
Course Credit: TBD    
Fall & Spring | Annual        
Directed readings or research at the graduate level to meet the needs of individual students.
Consent of instructor required. Units to be arranged.

ENVIRON 795: Community-Based Environmental Management Practicum  
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Course is designed for students who wish to learn theory, skills and tools necessary for working with communities to manage their own environment. Course includes in-class lectures, discussions of readings, guest speakers and an in-depth client project with a local community-based environmental organization. Topics will include: community organizing; assessing and capturing resources; participatory planning and evaluation; participatory monitoring; outreach and social marketing; and political action for environmental change. Second of two required courses for the Community-Based Environmental Management certificate (NSOE only).
Prerequisite: Environment 755.

ENVIRON 798: Communicating Outside the Box: Effective Science Communications and Research Translation Skills            
Course Credit: 2      
SPR  ANNUAL                                                                   
Course primarily aimed at late-stage doctoral students who wish to translate their own research to audiences outside of the academy. Students will develop skills to effectively communicate science and research to non-academic audiences using a variety of methods and will develop and implement a research translation/communication strategy for their own research. Specific topics include underlying theories and frameworks, science and advocacy, environmental justice/community-based research, science and K-12 education, expert testimony, communicating with media, and communicating with policy makers.
Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

ENVIRON 799S: Topics in Ecological Genomics                                     
Course Credit: 1        
Spring | Annual            
This graduate seminar explores how genomic approaches are impacting research in ecology and environmental biology. The course is targeted to PhD or research-active masters students interested in genomics, genetics, ecology, ecotoxicology, conservation genetics, environmental sciences, and/or computational biology. Discussions will focus on case studies from primary literature, and computer labs will allow hands-on use of current programs. May be repeated.

ENVIRON 800: Professional Communications for MEM and MF Students
Course Credit: 1        
Fall | Annual            
Skills-building in professional communication, emphasizing visual communication and speaking. Oral presentations, written document design, graphic display of information, presentation software, and giving and receiving constructive feedback on projects in these areas. Open only to MEM and MF students.

ENVIRON 801: Topics in Experiential Learning for Environmental Management     
Course Credit: tbd                   
Spring | Annual
Field trips, short courses, guest lectures series and other learning experiences that bring students into practice of environmental management and bring environmental managers to students. Example of topics include sustainable energy and sustainable forest practices. Main mode of instruction: face-to-face participation by students in learning experiences designed by environmental managers; some sections will also include background reading and student project work. Grading: pass/fail, with attendance at all class sessions and completion of any projects required to pass. MEM/MF students may count up to a total of 3 credits toward 48 credits required for the degree. Registration limited to Nicholas School MEM/MF students; undergraduates and PhD students may participate on a non-credit basis if space is available.

ENVIRON 808: Wetland Field Skills - Title expected to change 2016-2017  
Course Credit: 3        
FALL or Spring | Annual            
Introduces students to basic techniques of data collection and application of field indicators in wetlands. In the course students will monitor wetland hydrology, soils and plant communities for research purposes and for jurisdictional determination of wetland boundaries using U.S. Army Corps of Engineers protocols.

ENVIRON 809: Wetland Restoration Ecology                                      
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Restoration of wetlands requires understanding of wetland hydrology, biogeochemical processes, decomposition, community habitat requirements and soil processes. Factors are discussed in an ecosystem context along with current restoration techniques. Course utilizes newly constructed wetlands in Duke Forest to explore wetland restoration principles. Students teamed together to develop restoration plan for a restored wetland. Final report and oral presentation required.

ENVIRON 811: Sustainable Systems Theory and Drivers                     
Course Credit: 3        
Fall or Spring | Annual            
Theoretical grounding on Sustainable Systems (SS) thinking and overview of national and international frameworks that have led to development and use of sustainable systems modeling, life cycle analysis and policy decision models. Topics include socio-metabolic consumption, sustainability as a field of inquiry, systems thinking, industrial ecology, earth systems engineering, complexity and resiliency. Explore current drivers and implications of sustainable systems with specific focus on nexus of industry and environmental systems including examining cumulative impacts and benefits resulting from shifting supply chains, green engineering, technological designs and consumer behavior.

ENVIRON 812: Wetlands Ecology and Management                            
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
The study of bogs, fens, marshes, and swamps. Emphasis on processes within the ecosystem: biogeochemical cycling, decomposition, hydrology, and primary productivity. Ecosystem structure, the response of these systems to perturbations, and management strategies are discussed. A research project is required.
Prerequisites: one course in ecology and chemistry.

ENVIRON 813: Advanced Environmental Toxicology                            
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional | Annual     
Discussion of current issues. Topics vary but may include chemical carcinogenesis in aquatic animals; biomarkers for exposure and sublethal stress in plants and animals; Discussion of current issues. Topics vary but may include chemical carcinogenesis in aquatic animals; biomarkers for exposure and sublethal stress in plants and animals; techniques for ecological hazard assessments; and means of determining population, community, and ecosystem level effects. Lectures and discussions led by instructor, guest speakers, and students.
Prerequisite: Environment 501.

ENVIRON 814: Integrated Case Studies in Toxicology                        
Course Credit: 1        
Spring | Annual            
Students are assigned topics relative to their chosen research discipline in toxicology and are asked to develop case studies to present at a roundtable workshop. Emphasis on review and analysis of toxicological problems from a holistic (multidisciplinary) viewpoint. Offered on demand.

ENVIRON 815: Focused Topics in Toxicology                                     
Course Credit: 1        
Spring | Annual            
A contemporary advanced toxicology research area covered with readings from the current primary literature. An integrative review of the topic prepared as a collaborative effort. Consent of instructor required.
Prerequisites: Pharmacology 533 and 847S.

ENVIRON 816: International Climate Change Negotiations Practicum    
Course Credit: 3        
Spring or Fall | Annual            
Climate change promises to impact almost every aspect of life on earth across the globe. It is an issue that, because of the diffuse nature of its causes and solutions, will require a global solution. Since the Rio Earth Summit in 1992, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has been the primary forum for the negotiation of international agreements concerning climate change. Students will learn about primary issues involved in negotiation of international climate change agreements under UNFCCC and train them to take part as a stakeholder with the intention of developing students' analytical thinking through experiential learning at international level.

ENVIRON 819: Mechanisms in Environmental Toxicology                     
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Provides an in-depth examination of key molecular and biochemical mechanisms by which organisms defend themselves against environmental pollutants. Cellular mechanisms by which chemicals produce toxicity when the defense systems are overwhelmed will be addressed. Includes examinations of ''state of the art'' approaches for experimentally elucidating these phenomena. Course format will be that of a graduate seminar, with lectures given and discussions led by the instructors, guest speakers, and course participants.
Prerequisites: one course in biochemistry and one course in toxicology.

ENVIRON 820 S: Conservation Ethics                                                   
Course Credit: 3        
Fall or Spring | Annual            
Students will delve into the tension between science and advocacy through the lens of environmental ethics. Students will gain a strong foundation in principles of environmental ethics, drawing from the rich literature on this topic from the fields of philosophy and ethics, environmental communications and education, and conservation ecology. Seminar-style course requires students to actively lead and participate in weekly discussions, write a series of essays and collaboratively design and initiate a semester project. Ultimately, the course is about reflecting on not just the academic literature and individual scenarios but seriously considering the role our own values play in our work.

ENVIRON 821: Advanced Readings in Soil Science                              
Course Credit: 1        
Occasional | Annual        
An advanced discussion course based on readings that concern current critical topics in the soil sciences. Readings are selected from both basic and applied aspects of the field.

ENVIRON 823: Ecological Resilience and Ecosystem Management        
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Odd Years       
Course provides an introduction to concepts of ecological resilience and its application to the management of ecological systems, and is intended for both PhD and MEM students. The course does not require formal mathematical training, but students are expected to engage the models used in this field. Course consists of lectures, discussion, and a group research project. Lectures will address fundamental theory, case studies, and empirical approaches used to understand the resilience of basic ideas, observations, and approaches to understanding the ecology of flowing water systems.

ENVIRON 826: Global Environmental Politics                                      
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Course examines how states and non-states actors cooperate to resolved global environmental problems. Central focus is on the creation of international environmental regimes, their implementation, and effectiveness. Case studies include climate change, ozone depletion, water sharing and dams, fisheries, biodiversity, forestries, oil pollution, sustainable development, environmental security, and trade and the environment.

ENVIRON 829: Natural Resource Economics                                       
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional | Variable  
Addresses questions about natural resource scarcity using modern capital theory and optimal control theory to derive core results. Two objectives: provide students with a solid foundation in theory of natural resource economics, emphasizing tools and theoretical breadth to enhance research and teaching. Second objective to highlight contemporary themes in theoretical and empirical resource economics. Designed for PhD students in economics, finance, agriculture and resource economics, or public policy (with economics concentration).
Prerequisites: one year PhD-level microeconomic theory and econometrics; review of differential equations recommended. Consent of instructor required.

ENVIRON 830: Building Energy on Campus: Evaluating Efficiency and Conservation Measures at Duke 
Course Credit: 3            
Spring | Annual
Buildings use more than 40% of the energy consumed in the US, and are a natural target of energy efficiency and conservation measures. Building owners and facility managers, as well as the policy community, are therefore interested in identifying means of reducing energy consumption in the current building stock and taking advantage of the embodied energy already sunk into its construction. Using the campus as a laboratory, course examines energy use in existing Duke buildings. Students will learn about the relationship between building design and energy use, and gain hands-on experience conducting energy audits and evaluating energy saving measures in campus facilities.

ENVIRON 831: Sustainable Business Strategy                                    
Course Credit: 3        
Spring or Fall | Annual            
Businesses are increasingly applying strategic management tools to incorporate consideration of sustainability into decision-making and operations. While some businesses incorporate sustainable practices because of ethical convictions, most businesses are motivated to do so to address pressures from stakeholders such as regulators, shareholders, customers and neighbors and to exploit knowledge and experience for long term competitive advantage. Students will learn how businesses develop and implement strategies to promote sustainability by examining roles and responsibilities of sustainable strategic managers and applying tools of strategic business management to problems of sustainability.
Permission of instructor required.

ENVIRON 832: Environmental Decision Analysis                                 
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Quantitative methods for analyzing environmental problems involving uncertainty and multiple, conflicting objectives. Topics include subjective probability, utility, value of information, multi-attribute methods. Students will apply these tools to an environmental policy decision in a group project.
Prerequisite: introductory applied statistics or equivalent.

ENVIRON 834 S: Environmental Social Science Research Workshop         
Course Credit: TBD    
Spring | Annual            
Seminar format designed to give graduate students in environmental social sciences a venue to present research proposals and preliminary work. Emphasis is on application of social science research methods. Includes presentations by faculty and students. Intended for doctoral students in environmental social sciences. Students wishing to earn more than one credit will prepare an additional separate paper on topic with approval of instructor.
Permission of instructor required.

ENVIRON 835: Environmental Law                                                    
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Examination of rapidly growing body of law concerned with interrelationships between human activities and the larger environment. Focus on rationales for environmental protection; risk assessment and priorities.

ENVIRON 838: Environmental Modeling: A Bayesian Perspective          
Course Credit: 2        
Occasional | Annual     
Introduction to Bayesian hierarchical and Bayesian networks models and their applications in water quality modeling and assessment.

ENVIRON 840: Ecology and Conservation of Gabon                            
Course Credit: 1        
Occasional | Annual       
Field course to study environmental problems, challenges and aspirations of Gabon, W. Africa. Goal is to expose students to Gabon’s natural ecosystems and its development challenges and to think critically about development trade-offs. Study of coastal ecosystems & interior tropical forests including drivers of environmental degradation & destruction: subsistence agriculture, large-scale logging, industrial agriculture, mining & hunting/poaching. Field research & evaluation of environmental policy options, examining role of human and industrial impacts on the environment.
Prerequisite: graduate course in Tropical Ecology or Conservation Biology/Management. Course may be repeated. Instructor consent required. Priority to students with French language skills.

ENVIRON 841: Ecological perspectives: Individuals to communities      
Course Credit: 4        
Fall | Variable 
Enrollment: Ph.D. students only

ENVIRON 842: Ecological perspectives: Ecophys to Ecosystems            
Course Credit: 4        
Occasional | Annual        
A comprehensive course on the processes and factors that determine the capture and flow of energy and materials through individual organisms, populations, and entire ecosystems, both natural and disturbed. Interactions between ecosystem processes and the determinants of species number, and home range link this course to material covered in University Program in Ecology 701. Focus on human impacts that affect the movements of energy and materials in ecosystems. Studies of paleoecology provide a historical context for current patterns of global change.

ENVIRON 847 S: Seminar in Toxicology                                               
Course Credit: 1        
Fall | Annual            
A weekly research seminar throughout the year is required of participants in the Toxicology Program. Students, faculty, and invited speakers present their findings.

ENVIRON 848: Seminar in Toxicology                                               
Course Credit: 1        
Spring | Annual            
A weekly research seminar throughout the year is required of participants in the Toxicology Program. Students, faculty, and invited speakers present their findings.

ENVIRON 851 S:Environment and Development Economics                   
Course Credit: 1.5     
Occasional | Annual    
Readings course surveys range of important natural resource and environmental issues in developing countries. Emphasizes use of economic principles to understand these issues and to formulate effective policy responses to them. Course has theoretical content, but deals with theory more qualitatively than mathematically. Provides an opportunity for learning how economic theory taught in other courses can be applied to natural resource and environmental issues in developing countries. Course objective: familiarize students with key portions of literature on environment and development economics and foster students' abilities to read this literature critically and after graduation.

ENVIRON 856: Environmental Fluid Mechanics                                   
Course Credit: 3        
Spring or Fall | Annual            
Introduction to turbulent fluid flow and Navier Stokes equations; basic concepts in statistical fluid mechanics; development of prognostic equations for turbulent fluxes, variances, and turbulent kinetic energy; Monin and Obukhov similarity theory for stratified turbulent boundary layer flows; applications to CO2, water vapor, and heat fluxes from uniform and nonuniform surfaces; the local structure of turbulence and Kolmogorov's theory; turbulent energy transfer and energy cascade between scales; turbulence measurements in the natural environment.
Prerequisite: Civil Engineering 301L, Mathematics 230, or equivalent.

ENVIRON 857 L: Satellite Remote Sensing for Environmental Analysis     
Course Credit: 4        
Fall | Annual            
Environmental analysis using satellite remote sensing. Theoretical and technical underpinnings of remote sensing (corrections/pre-processing, image enhancement, analysis) with practical applications (land cover mapping, change detection e.g. deforestation mapping, forest health monitoring). Strong emphasis on hands-on processing and analysis. Will include variety of image types: multi-spectral, hyper-spectral, radar and others.
Prerequisite: familiarity with GIS.

ENVIRON 859: Advanced Geospatial Analysis                                    
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Provide training in more advanced skills such as: GIS database programming, modeling applications, spatial decision support systems and Internet map server technologies. The course requires a fundamental knowledge of geospatial analysis theory, analysis tools, and applications. Consent of instructor required.
Prerequisites: Environment 559 and Environment 761, 765, or 789

ENVIRON 868: Natural Resources Law                                               
Course Credit: 2        
Fall or Spring | Annual            
Focus on constitutional, statutory, and common law governing the legal status and management of federal lands and natural resources.

ENVIRON 869: Environmental Law Clinic                                            
Course Credit: 4        
Fall or Spring | Annual            
Under supervision of Law clinical faculty, students work on current case and policy advocacy priorities as determined by Clinic's Intake Board. Cases and issues undertaken by the Clinic will vary by semester. Skills training emphasizes skills needed to counsel clients, examine witnesses and to advocate effectively in rulemaking and litigation settings. One semester enrollment; 2 semesters with instructor consent. Minimum 100 hours of clinic work per semester plus weekly group training meetings. Must be in second or third semester in Nicholas School to enroll. Suggested for students to also enroll in Environment 835, Environmental Law.

ENVIRON 871: Fish As Models For Disease Research                          
Course Credit: 4        
Spring | Variable       
Fish serve as models for disease research in genetic regulation of development, aging, cancer and high throughput screening of drugs and toxins. Due to their importance in human nutrition, fish are a central part of resource assessment following oil spills. To better appreciate fish as models and sentinels, this course will include coverage at all levels of biological organization and will acquaint the student with current methods, approaches and analyses.

ENVIRON 891: Topics in Environmental Regulation                             
Course Credit: 1.5     
Occasional | Annual       
In-depth analysis of current issues in environmental regulation. Topics vary. Course may be repeated.

ENVIRON 898: Program Area Seminar                                              
Course Credit: 1        
Fall & Spring | Annual     
Required symposium in each program area. Students present master's project research. Pass/fail grading only.

ENVIRON 899: Master's Project                                                        
Course Credit: tbd    
Fall & Spring | Annual       
An applied study of a forestry or environmental management problem or a theoretical research effort. A seminar presentation of the objectives, methodology, and preliminary findings is required. A written (or other medium) report at the conclusion of the project is also required. Undertaken with the guidance of the student's adviser.
Consent of instructor required. Pass/fail grading only.

EOS 507S: The Amazon: Geology, Climate, Ecology, and Future Change       
Course Credit: 3                       
Occasional (Spring)| Variable
This course will study the natural history of the Amazon including its biodiversity, geological evolution, and modern climate and hydrology. The present development of the Amazon and best strategies for its future conservation will be discussed.

EOS 509S: Paleoclimate                                                            
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional | Annual          
Nature and mechanisms of climate variability throughout Earth history. Topics include general theory of climate, paleoclimate modeling and comparisons with observations, methodologies of reconstructing past climate variations, the observational record of paleoclimate extending from the Precambrian through the Ice Ages and Holocene to present, and the impact paleoclimate on biotic evolution/paleogeography and human cultural history.
Consent of instructor required.

EOS 510S: Paleoenvironmental Analysis                                      
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional | Annual       
Methods of paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic analysis. Includes radiometric and other methods of dating, stable isotopes, trace elements, paleobiotic and other methods of reconstructing climate, hydrology and environment of the past. Also includes approaches to modeling paleoenvironmental data.

EOS 511: The Climate System                                                 
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Components of the climate system: observed climate change, concept of energy balance, basic circulation of the atmosphere and ocean, introduction to climate models, sample applications of climate models, interactions between the atmosphere/ocean/ and biosphere, land surface, cryosphere (snow and ice), and chemistry of the atmosphere.
Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

EOS 512: Climate Change and Climate Modeling                        
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional | Annual           
Course aims to provide knowledge and understanding of physics of climate system and Earth system modeling for scientists, engineers and policy students with physics and mathematics background. Fundamental principles controlling physical and dynamic structure of climate system; discussion of relative roles of natural climate variability and external forces and anthropogenic influences. Explore numerical methods, develop computing skills, and deal with data handing as a means to an end of quantifying climate system behavior.
Prerequisite: Earth and Ocean Sciences 511.

EOS 515: Mountain Ecohydrology Field Course - Montana            
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Study of watershed ecohydrology and the interactions and feedback among hydrological and ecological processes in the western United States. Includes required pre-semester week-long field trip to Montana (with required fee), where participants visit active research watersheds, some of the most intensively instrumented ecohydrological research sites in the country. Students learn techniques to collect hydrologic and ecological field data and work with instructors to collect a comprehensive suite of ecohydrological data, to be interpreted and presented during series of follow-up class meetings.
Prerequisite: General background in Earth and Environmental Sciences.

EOS 520: Introduction to Fluid Dynamics                                   
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional (Spring) | Annual         
Conservation equations for mass, momentum and heat, with an emphasis on large temporal and spatial scales; application to the earth, ocean, and environmental sciences. Some background in differential equations highly recommended.

EOS 524: Water Quality Health                                                 
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Explore basic concepts of water quality and human health with focus on the global water cycle, global water demand and availability, chemical properties of water, contaminants in water, health implications, and environmental isotope hydrology. Highlights relationships between human activities, water scarcity, water quality degradation, and ecological and health consequences. Addresses some policy implications related to conflicts over water resources and impact of energy production on water resources.
Prerequisites: prior knowledge of introductory calculus and chemistry or consent of instructor.

EOS 525: Fundamentals of Water Biogeochemistry and Pollution  
Course Credit: 3        
Spring | Annual            
Course is designed to present students with a comprehensive introduction to the sources and impacts of pollution in marine and freshwater environments. Fundamental concepts and principles of aquatic biogeochemistry will first be introduced: marine and freshwater chemistry, primary production and food webs. Topics to be covered include biological (e.g. pathogens, invasive species), physical (e.g. thermal, plastics), and chemical (e.g. nutrient loading, oil, pesticides, metals) pollutants.

EOS 526S: Water Forum Speaker Series                                      
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional | Annual    
Seminar including visiting scholars covering a broad array of issues on water including water quality, hydrogeology, biogeochemistry, water management, water treatment, ecology, water economy, and water policy and law at both the national and international levels.

EOS 527: International Water Resources                                   
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional (Fall) | Annual     
Overview of the hydrology, hydrogeology, water quality, and management of major international water resources. Focus on cross-boundary international rivers and aquifers, up-stream versus down-stream water users, the politics of water sharing and disputes, the role of science in water management, and prospects and implications for future utilization of contaminated rivers and stressed aquifers. Examples from international rivers such as the Tigris, Euphrates, Nile, Jordan, Colorado, Indus, Ganges, and Mekong and international aquifer systems such as the Mountain aquifer, Gaza Strip, Disi, and Nubian basins in northern Africa.

EOS 528S: Biological-Physical Couplings in Coastal Environments; Responses to Changing Forcing
Course Credit: 3            
Spring | Annual
Focus on select examples of biological-physical couplings that shape coastal environments (i.e. coastal "ecomorphodynamics") and help determine how those environments respond to changing climate and land use. Environments include: barrier islands, tidal wetlands. Grading based on in-class presentations, and a final project (in the form of a research proposal).
Instructor consent required.

EOS 540: Introduction to Modeling in the Earth Sciences              
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Elementary methods for quantitatively modeling problems in the earth sciences. Formulation and solution of classical equations that express fundamental behaviors of fluids, sediments, and rocks. Examples from different fields of geology. Simple modeling exercises, including a final project.

EOS 542S: New Perspectives and Methods in Surface Process Studies  
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional | Annual         
Nonlinear dynamics and related approaches to understanding, modeling, and analyzing physical systems, with emphasis on applications in geomorphology.
Consent of instructor required.

EOS 550: Climate & Society                                                     
Course Credit: 3        
Fall or Spring | Annual            
Advanced, interdisciplinary course on causes, consequences, and future trajectory of climate change. Course will cover physical observations of past climate change, role of human activities in driving climate change to date, and impacts of climate change on human and natural systems. Course will analyze how socio-economic choices affects future climate as well as factors influencing those choices, including risk analyses, geoengineering proposals, intergenerational equity, climate metrics and the media.

EOS 567: Analyzing Time and Space Series                               
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional (Spring)| Annual    
Ways to extract information from data; methods for probing time or spatial series including spectral and wavelet analyses, correlation techniques, and nonlinear-dynamics approaches for determining how deterministic and linear the processes producing the data are, and for reconstructing and quantitatively comparing state-space plots.

EOS 569: Thermodynamics of Geological Systems                      
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional | Annual          
Introductory thermodynamics applied to geologic problems through understanding of phase equilibrium.
Prerequisites: Earth and Ocean Sciences 201; and Mathematics 122 or consent of instructor.

EOS 571: Stable and Radioactive Isotopes in Environmental Sciences          
Course Credit: 3                       
Occasional | Annual
Theory and applications of stable and radioactive isotope distributions in nature (including oceanographic, geologic, hydrologic, and biological processes).
Prerequisites: Chemistry 210DL and Mathematics 122.

EOS 573S: Analytic Techniques                                                  
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional | Annual         
An introduction to advanced analytic procedures used in the earth sciences: such as electron microbeam techniques (scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis) and plasma emission/absorption spectroscopy.
Consent of instructor required.

EOS 575: Mineral Resources                                                    
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional (Spring) | Annual         
Introduction to the mineralogy, geological setting, and genesis of metallic and nonmetallic
deposits (gold, copper, iron, aluminum, gypsum, phosphates, diamonds, e.g.). Includes methods of mineral exploration and exploitation, and the environmental consequences of utilizing mineral resources. An introductory geology course background useful but not required.

EOS 578: Tropical Climate and Paleoclimate                              
Course Credit: 3        
Occasional | Annual          
Thermodynamics of tropical climate. Nature and mechanisms of climate variability in the tropics on time scales from daily to multi-millennial. Impact of climatic variability on the tropical biota. Effects of anthropogenic changes of the environment on future climatic change in the tropics and potential extratropical teleconnections.
Prerequisite: Earth and Ocean Sciences 101 or 102.

EOS 590: Special Topics in Earth and Ocean Sciences                  
Course Credit: tbd    
Fall or Spring | Annual            
Content to be determined each semester.
Consent of instructor required.

EOS 710S: Bio-geomorphology: The Biophysical Processes Shaping the Earth's Surface                
Course Credit: 1            
Spring or Fall | Annual                                                                
Course examines recent literature contributions shedding light on the two-way interactions among the biosphere, the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and the litosphere. Emphasis will be placed on the general emergent properties of coupled bio-physical systems, such as multistability, critical behavior, optimality, etc. Topics will include tidal bio-geomorphology, fluvial eco-hydrology, eco-hydrology of arid ecosystems, coastline dynamics, global biogeochemical cycles.

EOS 711S: Cenozoic climate, environment, and mammalian evolution in the New World               
Course Credit: 3            
Spring or Fall | Annual                                                              
Recent advances in the methodologies of molecular genetics, paleoclimate analysis and modeling, and paleoaltimetry have resulted in a host of important discoveries in their respective fields. How does the evolution of the physical environment (climate, mountain uplift, hydrology, biogeochemistry) influence or, in some cases, even control the biological evolution of mammals. The geographic focus will be on the New World. The temporal focus will extend throughout the entire Cenozoic. Course will bring together a diverse set of scholars across campus to read, discuss, and formulate strategies for future research.

EOS 715: Introduction to Coastal Environmental Change Processes  
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Nearshore physical processes responsible for the evolution of beaches and barrier islands. Various problems and possible solutions arising from human development of retreating shorelines. Involves a field trip and research paper.

EOS 716 A: Beach & Island Geological Processes                           
Course Credit: 2        
Spring | Annual            
Field seminar on the evolution of beaches and barrier islands with emphasis on the interactions between nearshore processes and human development.
Prerequisite: Earth and Ocean Sciences 315/515 or consent of instructor

EOS 722: Hydrologic and Environmental Data Analysis                 
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
Course will focus on acquisition of skills necessary to extract information from observations of hydrological and environmental processes, connect the extracted information with the physical processes generating the data, and estimate physical quantities at ungauged location/times. Emphasis on process understanding via data analysis techniques. Applications used as a way to understand the general concepts, with examples drawn from water science.
Prerequisites: Basic computer skills, Algebra, Calculus are required. Experience with computational software (e.g. Matlab or R) is helpful but not required.

EOS 723: Landscape Hydrology                                                
Course Credit: 3        
Fall | Annual            
An introduction to hydrology by examining how rainfall and snowmelt become streamflow, evapotranspiration, and groundwater with emphasis on hydrological processes inside watersheds. Topic areas include: hydrologic cycle and water balances, evapotranspiration and snow energy balances, vadose zone hydrology, hydrogeology, hyporheic zones, riparian zones, streamflow generation mechanisms, biogeochemical budgets, and field measurement techniques. Linkages between physical hydrology and broader ecological and environmental sciences will be highlighted. Includes local field trips

EOS 729S: The Water-Energy Nexus                                           
Course Credit: 1        
Spring | Annual            
Course presents emerging issues related to the water-energy nexus, including unconventional and conventional energy exploration, hydraulic fracturing, coal mining, coal combustion and disposal of coal ash, oil sand, oil shale, hydropower, and others. Reading and critically evaluating published scientific reports as part of the discussion is required.
Instructor consent required.

EOS 790S: Advanced Topics in Geology                                       
Course Credit: tbd    
Occasional | Annual   
Topics, instructors, and credits to be arranged each semester.

EOS 790: Special Topics in Earth and Ocean Sciences                  
Course Credit: tbd    
Occasional | Annual      
Content to be determined each semester. Consent of instructor required.

EOS 791: Independent Study                                                   
Course Credit: tbd    
Fall & Spring | Annual       
Consent of instructor required.

EOS 820: College Teaching Practicum                                       
Course Credit: tbd    
Spring | Annual            
Course for doctoral students to gain practical skills and knowledge while teaching.
Reserved for Earth and Ocean Science Doctoral Students.

EOS 890A: Advanced Topics in Earth and Ocean Sciences              
Course Credit: tbd    
Occasional | Annual     
To meet the individual needs of graduate students for independent study.