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Curtis J. Richardson, Ph.D. 

Professor of Resource Ecology

Nicholas School of the Environment

Director, Duke University Wetland Center

Office Phone: (919) 613-8006


Dr. Richardson’s research interests in applied ecology center on long-term ecosystem response to large-scale perturbations such as acid rain, toxic materials, flooding, or nutrient additions. He has specific interests in wetland ecosystems, phosphorus nutrient dynamics, and the effects of environmental stress on plant metabolism and growth. Major research focuses on wetlands as nutrient sinks and transformers. His current research activities include: (1) the effects of nutrient additions and hydrology on Everglades phosphorus retention and community changes; (2) heavy metal sorption, storage, and removal from pocosin peatlands; (3) wetland development trends in the southeastern United States; and (4) the effects of highway construction on wetland functions.

Curriculum Vitae


Professor of Resource Ecology

Director, Duke University Wetland Center


Nicholas School of the Environment
Box 90333
Levine Science Research Center
Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708-0333
Office Phone: (919) 613-8006


B.S. State University of New York, 1966 (Biology)

University of Florida, 1967 (Botany)

Ph.D. University of Tennessee, 1972 (Ecology)


Professor of Resource Ecology, Nicholas School of the Environment, 1991 -

Director, Duke University Wetland Center, 1990 -

Professor of Resource Ecology, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Duke University, 1988-1991.

Associate Professor of Resource Ecology, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Duke University, 1977-87.

Senior Research Fellow in Applied Ecology and Forestry, University of Edinburgh, U.K., 1982.

Assistant Professor of Resource Ecology, School of Natural Resources, University of Michigan, 1972-77.

Assistant Professor of Plant Ecology, University of Michigan Biological Station, summer 1973.

Research Assistant, Ecological Science Division, Oak Ridge National Lab, Tennessee, 1970-72.

Research Ecologist, Costa Rica, Central America, O.T.S., 1969.

Research Ecologist, Amchitka, Alaska, A.E.C., 1968.


National Wetlands Scientist of the Year Award 2006

SUNY Distinguished Alumni Award 2006

Society of Wetland Scientists Fellow, 2003

American Association for the Advancement of Science Fellow, 2001

Soil Science Society of America Fellow, 2000

Who's Who in Science, 1989-

Elected President, Society of Wetland Scientists, 1987-88.

Elected Vice President, Society of Wetland Scientists, 1986-87.

American Men & Women of Science, 1986-.

Sigma XI


Editorial Advisory Board, Marsh Bulletin, the AMAR International Charitable Foundation

Scientific Advisor: European Union project on effects of global climate change on lakes, wetlands, and streams, 2005-

Scientific Advisor: USAID on restoration of the Mesopotamian marshes of Iraq, 2003-

Scientific Advisor: School for Advanced Studies, Venice, Italy, 2003-

Ecological Advisor: Eden Again project to restore the Iraq marshes, sponsored by the US State Dept., 2002-

Associate Editor: Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 1999-.

CSRS-USDA grant panel member for Fund for Rural America, 1997.

Executive Committee on the Albemarle Basin, North Carolina State University, 1997-.

Society of Wetland Scientists: Sponsors and Endowment Committee Chair, 1996-.

EPA: National Wetlands EMAP Review Panel Chairman, 1992.

USDA Panel Manager for Competitive Grants Program on Water Quality, Wash, DC. 1990-91.

EPA Science Advisory Board Member on National Wetland Research Plan, 1991-.

Associate Editor: Wetlands, 1987-93.

President: National Society of Wetland Scientists, 1987, 1988

Vice-President: National Society of Wetland Scientists, 1986-87.

EPA: National Wetlands Review Panel, 1984.

Council on Environmental Quality 404 Wetlands Review Panel.

North Carolina Pesticide Advisory Committee, 1980-85.

The Institute of Ecology (TIE) National Representative at Duke, 1978-83.



My research interests in applied ecology are centered on long-term ecosystem response to large-scale perturbations such as climate change, toxic materials, trace metals, flooding, or nutrient additions.  I have specific interests in phosphorus nutrient dynamics in wetlands, and the effects of environmental stress on plant communities and ecosystem functions. Current research efforts have focused on the restoration of wetland and stream functions on the landscape.    Newly funded NSF research will focus on the concept of differential nutrient limitation (DNL) as a mechanism to overcome N or P limitations across trophic levels in coastal wetland ecosystems, and the effects of nanomaterials on ecosystem functional responses in wetlands and streams. A new EPA grant will focus on the effects of climate change on invasive species in wetlands.   

Current research activities in my lab include: 1) wetland restoration of plant communities and its effects on regional water quality and nutrient biogeochemical cycles, 2) the development of ecosystem metrics as indices of wetland restoration success, 3) the effects of  nanomaterials on wetland and stream ecosystem processes, 4) the development of ecological thresholds along environmental gradients, 5) wetland development trends and restoration in coastal  southeastern United States, 6) the development of   an outdoor wetland research and teaching laboratory on Duke Forest, and 7) differential nutrient limitation (DNL) as a mechanism to overcome N or P limitations across trophic levels in wetland ecosystems.

The objectives of my field research are to test ecological principles and develop new approaches to environmental problem solving.  The goal of these studies is to provide predictive models to aid in the management of ecosystems.


Richardson, C.J. 2009. The Everglades: North America’s subtropical wetland. Wetlands Ecology and Management, doi: 10.1007/s11273-009-9156-4.

Richardson, C.J. 2009. Wetlands of mass destruction. Environmental Forum 26(4):36-41.

Richardson, C.J., and P. Vaithiyanathan. 2009. Biogeochemical Dynamics II. Cycling and storage of phosphorus in wetlands.  Chapter 10 (pp. 228-249) in: Maltby, E. and T. Barker (eds.), The Wetlands Handbook.  Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester.

Sundareshwar, P.V., C.J. Richardson, R.A Gleason, P J. Pellechia, and S. Honomichl. 2009. Nature versus nurture: Functional assessment of restoration effects on wetland services using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Geophysical Research Letters 36, L03402, doi:10.1029/2008GL036385.

Sutton-Grier, A.E., M. Ho, and C.J. Richardson. 2009. Organic amendments improve soil conditions and denitrification in a restored riparian wetland. Wetlands 29 (1):343-352.

Hartman, W.H., C.J. Richardson, R. Vilgalys, and G.L. Bruland. 2008. Environmental and anthropogenic controls over bacterial communities in wetland soils. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (46):17842-17847.

Richardson, C.J. 2008.  The Everglades Experiments: Lessons for Ecosystem Restoration. Springer-Verlag, New York 698 p. 

Richardson, C.J. 2008. Wetlands of mass destruction: Can the “Garden of Eden” be fully restored?  National Wetlands Newsletter 30 (3):1, 3-7, 33.

Richardson, C.J., R.S. King, S.S. Qian, P. Vaithiyanathan, R.G. Qualls, and C.A. Stow. 2008. Response to comment on “Estimating ecological thresholds for phosphorus in the Everglades.” Environmental Science & Technology 42 (17):6772-6773.

Kazezyilmaz-Alhan, C. V. M. A. Medina Jr., and C. J. Richardson. 2007. A wetland hydrology and water quality model incorporating surface water/groundwater interactions.  Water Resources Research 43: 1-16.  

King, R.S., and C.J. Richardson. 2007. Subsidy-stress response of macroinvertebrate community biomass to a phosphorus gradient in an oligotrophic wetland ecosystem. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 26 (3):169-184.

Richardson, C.J. 2007. From New Orleans to Venice: The Value of Coastal Ecosystem to the City. Venice, Italy: Fondazione Scuola Studi Avnzati in Venezia.56p.

Richardson, C.J., R.S. King, S.S. Qian, P. Vaithiyanathan, R.G. Qualls, and C.A. Stow. 2007. Estimating ecological thresholds for phosphorus in the Everglades. Environmental Science and Technology 41 (23):8084-8091.

 Richardson, C.J., and N. A. Hussain. 2006. Restoring the Garden of Eden: An Ecological Assessment of the Marshes of Iraq. BioScience 56:477-489.

Richardson, C. J. R. Elting, J. Pahl and G. Katul. 2006. Restoration of hydrologic and biogeochemical functions in bottomland hardwoods.  In. D. Amayta (ed.) International Conference on Hydrology and Management in Forested Wetlands. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. April 12-16, 2006. New Bern, North Carolina. 6:141-147.

Bruland, G.L., and C.J. Richardson. 2006.  An assessment of the phosphorus retention capacity of wetlands in the Painter Creek Watershed, Minnesota USA. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 171:169-184.

Bruland, G.L., and C.J. Richardson. 2006.  Comparison of soil organic matter in created, restored and paired natural wetlands in North Carolina. Wetlands Ecology and Management 14:245-251

Bruland, G.L. C.J. Richardson and S.C. Whalen. 2006. Spatial variability of denitrification potential and related soil properties in created, restored, and paired natural wetlands.  Wetlands. 24 (4): 1042-1056.

Benzing, P, and C.J. Richardson. 2005. CaCO3 Causes Underestimation of NaOH Extractable Phosphorus in Sequential Fractionations. Soil Science. 170 (10) 802-809.

Bourgeau-Chavez, L.L., K.B. Smith, S.M. Brunzell, E.S. Kasischke, E.A. Romanowicz, and C.J. Richardson. 2005. Remote monitoring of regional inundation patterns and hydroperiod in the greater Everglades using synthetic aperture radar. Wetlands 25 (1):176-191.

Bruland, G.L., and C.J. Richardson.  2005. Hydrologic, edaphic, and vegetative responses to Microtopographic reestablishment in a restored wetland. Restoration Ecology 13 (3):1-9.

Bruland, G.L., and C.J. Richardson. 2005. Spatial variability of soil properties in created, restored, and paired natural wetlands. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 69:273-284.

Richardson, C.J.  2005.  Highway construction and mitigation: On the road to increasing wetland function?  National Wetlands Newsletter 27 (5):17-20.

Richardson, C.J., P. Reiss, N.A. Hussain, A.J. Alwash, and D.J. Pool. 2005. The restoration potential of the Mesopotamian marshes of IraqScience 307:1307-1311.

Bruland, G.L., and C.J. Richardson. 2004.  A Spatially Explicit Investigation of Phosphorus Sorption and Related Soil Properties in Two Riparian Wetlands.  Journal of Environmental Quality 33:785-794.

King, R.S., and C.J. Richardson. 2004. Integrating bioassessment and ecological risk assessment: An approach to developing numerical water quality criteria.  Environmental Management 31 (6):795-809.


King, R.S., C.J. Richardson, D.L. Urban, and E.A. Romanowicz. 2004. Spatial dependency of vegetation–Environment Linkages in an anthropogenically influenced wetland ecosystem.  Ecosystems 7:75-97.


Bruland, G.L., M.F. Hanchey, and C.J. Richardson. 2003. Effects of agriculture and wetland restoration on hydrology, soils, and water quality of a Carolina bay comples. Wetlands Ecology and Management 11:141-156.


Kasischke, E.S., K.B. Smith, L.L. Bourgeau-Chavez, E.A. Romanowicz, S.M. Brunzell, and C.J. Richardson, Effects of Seasonal Hydrologic Patterns in South Florida Wetlands on Radar Backscatter Measured from ERS-2 SAR Imagery, Remote Sens. Env., 88, 423-441, 2003.


Qian, S.S., R.S. King, and C.J. Richardson 2003.  Two statistical methods for the detection of environmental thresholds. Ecological Modeling 166:87-97.


Qualls, R.G. and C.J. Richardson. 2003. Factors controlling concentration, export, and decomposition of dissolved organic nutrients in the Everglades of Florida.  Biogeochemistry 62 (2):197-229.


Richardson, C.J. 2003.  Pocosins: Isolated or integrated wetlands on the landscape?  Wetlands 23 (3):563-576.


Vymazal, J. and C.J. Richardson. 2003. The relationship between soil, water nutrients and biomass of Cladium jamaicense and Typha latifolia in the northern Everglades.  In: Vymazal, J. (ed.) Nutrients in Natural and Constructed WetlandsBackhuys Publishers, Leiden. 2003.


King, R.S. and C.J. Richardson. 2002. Evaluating subsampling approaches and macroinvertebrate taxonomic resolution for wetland bioassessment. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 21 (1):150-171.


Qualls, R.G., and C.J. Richardson, and L.J. Sherwood. 2002. Soil reduction-oxidation potential along a nutrient-enrichment gradient in the EvergladesWetlands 21 (3):403-411.


Richardson, C.J., and K. Nunnery. 2001. Ecological functional assessment (EFA): A new approach to determining wetland health..  Pp. 95-112.  In:  Vymazal, J. (ed.), Transformations of Nutrients in Natural and Constructed WetlandsBackhuys Publishers, Leiden.  519 pp.


Richardson, C.J., and J. Vymazal.  2001. Sampling macrophytes in wetlands.  Pp. 297-338 (Chapter 14) in Rader, R., D.P. Butzer, and Scott A. Wissinger (eds.). Bioassessment and Management of North American Freshwater Wetlands.  New York: John Wiley & Sons. 469 pp.

Chiang, C, C.B. Craft, D.W. Rogers and C.J. Richardson. 2000. Effects of 4 years of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on Everglades plant communities. Aquatic Botany 68:61-78

Qualls, R.G., and C.J. Richardson. 2000. Phosphorus enrichment affects litter decomposition, immobilization, and soil microbial phosphorus in wetland mesocosms. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 64:799-808.

Pan, Y., R.J. Stevenson, P. Vaithiyanathan, J. Slate, and C.J. Richardson. 2000. Changes in algal assemblages along observed and experimental phosphorus gradients in a subtropical wetland, U.S.A. Freshwater Biology 43:1-15.

Richardson, C.J. 2000. Freshwater Wetlands. pp. 448-499 (Chapter 12) in: Barbour, M.G. and W.D. Billings (eds.) North American Terrestrial Vegetation. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Cooper, S.R., J. Huvane, P. Vaithiyanathan and C.J. Richardson.   1999.  Calibration of diatoms along a nutrient gradient in Florida Everglades Water Conservation Area 2A, USA. Journal of Paleolimnology 22:413-437.

Jensen, J.E., S.R. Cooper and C.J. Richardson.   1999.  Development of a calibration model of modern pollen along a nutrient gradient in Everglades Water Conservation Area 2A, USA. Wetlands 19:675-688.

Richardson, C.J. 1999. Ecological functions of wetlands on the landscape.  Pp. 9-26.  In: Lewis, M.A., et al. (eds.) Ecotoxicology and Risk Assessment for Wetlands. SETAC Press, Pensacola. 376 pp.

Richardson, C.J.  1999.  The role of wetlands in storage, release, and cycling of phosphorus on the landscape: a 25 year retrospective.  In Reddy, K.R. (ed.) Phosphorus Biogeochemistry in Sub-Tropical Ecosystems.  CRC Press/Lewis Publishers.

Richardson, C.J., G.M. Ferrell and P. Vaithiyanathan. 1999. Effects of N and P additions on stand structure, nutrient resorption efficiency and secondary compounds of sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense Crantz) in the subtropical Everglades. Ecology 80 (7) 2182-2192.

Richardson, C.J. and K. Nunnery. 1999. Field investigations of wetland functions after disturbance at the ecosystem level. Pp. 359-372.   In McComb, A.J., and J.A. Davis (eds.) Wetlands for the Future:   Conference Proceedings of INTECOL's 5th International Wetland Conference.   Gleneagle Publishing, Adelaide. 780 pp.

Richardson, C.J. and S. Qian.  1999.   Phosphorus assimilative capacity in freshwater wetlands:  A new paradigm for maintaining ecosystem structure and function.  Environmental Science and Technology 33(10):1545-1551.

Craft, C.B. and C.J. Richardson. 1998. Recent (137Cs), long-term (210Pb) and historical (14C) peat accretion and nutrient accumulation in Everglades peatlands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62:834-843.

Craft, C.B. and C.J. Richardson. 1997. Relationships between soil nutrients and plant species composition in Everglades peatlands. Journal of Environmental Quality 26:224-232.

Lemly, D.A. and C.J. Richardson. 1997. Guidelines for risk assessment in wetlands. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 47:117-134.

Qian, S.S. and C.J. Richardson. 1997. Estimating the long-term phosphorus accretion rate in the Everglades: A Bayesian approach with risk assessment. Water Resources Research 33(7):1681-1688.

Richardson, C.J., S. Qian, C.B. Craft and R.G. Qualls. 1997. Predictive models for phosphorus retention in wetlands. Wetlands Ecology and Management 4:159-175.

Vaithiyanathan, P. and C.J. Richardson. 1997. Nutrient profiles in the Everglades: Examination along the eutrophication gradient. Science of the Total Environment 205:81-95.

Bartow, S.M., C.B. Craft and C.J. Richardson. 1996. Reconstructing historical changes in Everglades plant community composition using pollen distributions in peat. Journal of Lake and Reservoir Management 12(3):313-322.

Richardson, C.J. 1996. Wetlands Chapter 13. pp. 13.0-13.44. In: Mays, L.W. (Ed.) Water Resources Handbook, McGraw-Hill, Professional Book Group, New York, NY. USA.

Vaithiyanathan, P., C.J. Richardson, R. Kavanaugh, C.B. Craft and T. Barkay. 1996. Relationships of eutrophication to the distribution of mercury and to the potential for methylmercury production in the peat soils of the Everglades. Environmental Science Technology 30(8):2591-2597.

Bartlett, K.B., R.S. Clymo, C.B. Craft and C.J. Richardson. 1995. Non-coastal wetlands, Chapter 6, In: Oquist, M.G. and B. H. Svensson (eds.), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group II Second Assessment Report, International Council of Scientific Unions, Paris, France.

Bridgham, S.D., J. Pastor, C.A. McClaugherty, and C.J. Richardson. 1995. Nutrient-use efficiency: A litterfall index, a model, and a test along a nutrient-availability gradient in North Carolina peatlands. The American Naturalist 145(1):1-21.

Craft, C.B., J. Vymazal and C.J. Richardson. 1995. Response of Everglades plant communities to nitrogen and phosphorus additions. Wetlands 15(3):258-271.

Qualls, R.G. and C.J. Richardson. 1995. Forms of soil phosphorus along a nutrient enrichment gradient in the northern Everglades. Soil Science 160(3):183-198.

Richardson, C.J. 1995. Wetlands Ecology. In: Encyclopedia of Environmental Biology. Academic Press. 3:535-550.

Richardson, C.J. and P. Vaithiyanathan. 1995. P sorption characteristics of the Everglades soils along an eutrophication gradient. Soil Science Society of America 59:1782-1788.

Vymazal, J. and C.J. Richardson. 1995. Species composition, biomass, and nutrient content of periphyton in the Florida Everglades. Journal of Phycology 31:343-354.

Dizengremel, P., T.W. Sasek, K.J. Brown, and C.J. Richardson. 1994. Ozone-induced changes in primary carbon metabolism enzymes of loblolly pine needles. J. Plant Physiol. 144:300-306.

Rader, R.B. and C.J. Richardson. 1994. Response of macroinvertebrates and small fish to nutrient-enrichment in the Northern Everglades. Wetlands 14:134-146.

Richardson, C.J. 1994. Ecological functions and human values in wetlands: A framework for assessing impact. Wetlands 14:1-9.

Richardson, C.J. and E.J. McCarthy. 1994. Effect of land development and forest management on hydrologic response in southeastern coastal wetlands: A review. Wetlands 14:56-71.

Vymazal, J., C.B. Craft and C.J. Richardson. 1994. Periphyton response to nitrogen and phosphorous additions in the Florida Everglades. Algological Studies 73:1-23.

Bridgham, S.D. and C.J. Richardson. 1993. Hydrology and nutrient gradients in North Carolina peatlands. Wetlands 13(3):207-218.

Craft, C.B. and C.J. Richardson. 1993. Peat accretion and N, P, and organic C accumulation in nutrient-enriched and unenriched Everglades peatlands. Ecological Applications 3 (3):446-458.

Craft, C.B. and C.J. Richardson. 1993. Peat accretion and phosphorus accumulation along a eutrophication gradient in the northern Everglades. Biogeochemistry 22:133-156.

Richardson, C.J. and C.B. Craft. 1993. Effective phosphorus retention in wetlands: fact or fiction? pp. 271-282. In: Moshiri, G.A. (ed.), Constructed Wetlands for Water Quality Improvement. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.

Richardson, C.J. and L.W. Gibbons. 1993. Pocosins, Carolina bays and mountain bogs. In: Martin, B. et al. (eds.). Biodiversity of the Southern United States: Terrestrial Communities. Wiley Press.

Bridgham, S.D. and C.J. Richardson. 1992. Mechanisms controlling soil respiration (CO2 and CH 4) in southern peatlands. Soil Biol. Biochem. 24:(11) 1089-1099.

Cashin, G.E., J.R. Dorney and C.J. Richardson. 1992. Wetland trends on the North Carolina coastal plain. Wetlands 12(2):63-71.

Rader, R.B. and C.J. Richardson. 1992. The effects of nutrient enrichment on algae and macroinvertebrates in the Everglades: A review. Wetlands 12 (2):121-135.

Richardson, C.J., T.W. Sasek, E.A. Fendick and L.W. Kress. 1992. Ozone exposure-response relationships for photosynthesis in genetic strains of loblolly pine seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management 52:163-178.

Richardson, C.J., T.W. Sasek, and E.A. Fendick. 1992. Implications of physiological responses to chronic air pollution for forest decline in the southeastern U.S.A. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 11:1105-1114.

Sasek, T.W. and C.J. Richardson. 1992. The dose-response approach for assessing the effects of near-ambient ozone concentrations on photosynthesis. pp. 259-272. In: Flagler, R.B. (ed.), The response of southern commercial forests to air pollution. Transactions of Air and Waste Management Association #21, Pittsburgh, PA.

Bridgham, S.D. and C.J. Richardson. 1991. Freshwater peatlands (pocosins) on the southeastern coastal plain of the U.S.A.: Community description, nutrient dynamics, and disturbance. pp. 1-5. In: Grubich, D.N. and T.M. Malterer (eds.), Peat and peatlands: The resource and its utilization. International Peat Symposium, Duluth, Minnesota.

Bridgham, S.D., S.P. Faulkner and C.J. Richardson. 1991. Steel rod oxidation as a hydrologic indicator in wetland soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55:856-862.

Bridgham, S.D., C.J. Richardson, E. Maltby and S.P. Faulkner. 1991. Cellulose decay in natural and disturbed peatlands in North Carolina. J. of Environmental Quality 20:695-701.

Richardson, C.J. 1991. Pocosins: An ecological perspective. Wetlands 11:335-354.

Sasek, T.W., C.J. Richardson, E.A. Fendick, S.R. Bevington, and L.W. Kress. 1991. Carryover effects of acid rain and ozone on the physiology of multiple flushes of loblolly pine seedlings. Forest Science 37:1078-1098.

Walbridge, M.R., C.J. Richardson and W.T. Swank. 1991. Vertical distribution of biological and geochemical phosphorus subcycles in two southern Appalachian forest soils. Biogeochemistry 13:61-85.

Faulkner, S.P., and C.J. Richardson. 1990. Iron and manganese fractionalism in constructed wetlands receiving acid mine drainage. pp. 429-440. In: Cooper, P.F. and B.C. Findlater (eds.), Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control. Pergamon Press. New York, NY. 605 p.

Richardson, C.J. 1990. Biogeochemical Cycles: Regional. pp. 259-299. In: Patten, B.C. et al (eds.), Wetlands and Shallow Continental Water Bodies, Vol 1. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Richardson, C.J., T.W. Sasek and R.T. Di Giulio. 1990. Use of physiological and biochemical markers for assessing air pollution stress in trees. pp. 143-155. In: Wang, W., J.W. Gorsuch and W.R. Lower (eds.), Plants for Toxicity Assessment. ASTM STP 1091. American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia, PA.

Faulkner, S.P. and C.J. Richardson. 1989. Physical and chemical characteristics of freshwater wetland soils. pp. 41-72. In: Hamner, D.A. (ed.), Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Lewis Publishers. Chelsea, MI. 831 p.

Michaud, S.C. and C.J. Richardson. 1989. Relative radial oxygen loss in five wetland plants. pp. 501-507. In: Hamner, D.A. (ed.), Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment: Municipal, Industrial and Agricultural. Lewis Publishers. Chelsea, MI. 831 p.

Richardson, C.J. 1989. Freshwater wetlands: Transformers, filters or sinks? pp. 25-46. In: Sharitz, R.R. and J.W. Gibbons (eds.), Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife. Conf-8603101. DOE Symposium Series NO. 61. U.S. DOE. Oak Ridge, TN.

Richardson, C.J., R.T. Di Giulio and N.E. Tandy. 1989. Free-radical mediated processes as markers of air pollution stress in trees. pp. 251-261. In: Biological Markers of Air Pollution Effects and Damage in Forests. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C.

Sasek, T.W. and C.J. Richardson. 1989. Effects of chronic doses of ozone on loblolly pine: Photosynthetic characteristics of the third growing season. For. Sci. 35(3):745-755.

Tandy, N.E., R.T. Di Giulio and C.J. Richardson. 1989. Assay and electrophoresis of superoxide dismutase from red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), and scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.): A method for biomonitoring. Plant Physiol. 90:742-748.

Hendry, K.M. and C.J. Richardson. 1988. Soil biodegradation of carbofuran and furathiocarb following soil pretreatment with these pesticides. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 7:763-774.

Richardson, C.J., M.R. Walbridge and A. Burns. 1988. Soil chemistry and phosphorus retention capacity of North Carolina coastal plain swamps receiving sewage effluent. NC Water Resources Research Institute. Raleigh, NC. Report Number 212.

Whigham, D.F. and C.J. Richardson. 1988. Soil and plant chemistry of an Atlantic White Cedar wetland on the inner coastal plain of Maryland. Can. J. Botany 66:568-576.

Richardson, C.J. and J.A. Davis. 1987. Natural and artificial wetland ecosystems: Ecological opportunities and limitations. pp. 819-854. In: Reddy, K.R. and W.H. Smith (eds.), Aquatic Plants for Water Treatment and Resource Recovery. Magnolia Publishing Inc. Orlando, FL.

Stockton, M.B. and C.J. Richardson. 1987. Wetland development trends in coastal North Carolina, USA, from 1970 to 1984. Environmental Management 11(4):1-9.

Fuller, R.D and C.J. Richardson. 1986. Aluminate toxicity as a factor controlling plant growth in bauxite residue. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 5:905-915.

Richardson, C.J. and P.E. Marshall. 1986. Processes controlling the movement, storage, and export of phosphorus in a fen, peatland. Ecol. Monogr. 56:279-302.

Richardson, C.J. and B.R. Schwegler. 1986. Algal bioassay and gross productivity experiments using sewage effluent in a Michigan wetland. Water Research Bulletin 22:111-120.

Richardson, C.J. 1985. Mechanisms controlling phosphorus retention capacity in wetlands. Science 228:1424-1427.

Richardson, C.J. and D.S. Nichols. 1985. Ecological analysis of wastewater management criteria in wetland ecosystems. pp. 351-391. In: Godfrey, P.J., E.R. Kaynor, S. Pelczarski and J. Benforado (eds.), Ecological Considerations in Wetlands Treatment of Municipal Wastewater. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 473 p.

Roberts, M.R. and C.J. Richardson. 1985. Forty-one years of population and community change in aspen forests on four soil types in northern lower Michigan, U.S.A. Can. J. Botany 63:1641-1651.

Richardson, C.J. 1983. Pocosin wetlands: Vanishing wastelands or valuable wetlands? Bioscience 33:626-633.

Fuller, R.D., E.P. Nelson and C.J. Richardson. 1982. Reclamation of red mud (bauxite residues) using alkaline tolerant grasses with organic amendments. J. of Env. Quality 11(3):533-539.

Richardson, C.J. 1982. An ecological analysis of natural and disturbed pocosins with management recommendations. Wetlands 2:231-248.

Richardson, C.J. 198l. Pocosins: Ecosystem processes and the influence of man on system response. pp. 3-19. In: Richardson, C.J. (ed.), Pocosin Wetlands: An Integrated Analysis of Coastal Plain Freshwater Bogs in North Carolina. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co. Stroudsburg, PA. 364 p.

Richardson, C.J., D. Carr, and R.H. Evans. 1981. Pocosins: An ecosystem in transition. pp. 135-151. In: Richardson, C.J. (ed.), Pocosin Wetlands: An Integrated Analysis of Coastal Plain Freshwater Bogs in North Carolina. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co. Stroudsburg, PA. 364 p.

Richardson, C.J. and G.J. Koerper. 1981. The influence of edaphic characteristics and clonal variation on quantity and quality of wood production in Populus grandidentata Michx. in the Great Lake Region of the U.S.A. pp. 271-292. In: Tranquillini, W. (ed.), Radial Growth in Trees I.U.F.R.O. Symposium. Innsbruck, Austria. 1980.

Koerper, G.J. and C.J. Richardson. 1980. Biomass and net annual primary production regressions for Populus grandidentata on three sites in northern lower Michigan. Can. J. For. Res. 10:92-101.