Major Research Area: NIH grants support studies of structure/function relationships of oxygen and electron-transport proteins. Human proteins are compared to those of marine organisms in structure/function assays. Assays involve equilibrium measurements and complementary studies of rapid reaction kinetics, using UV/VIS and fluorescence spectroscopy and novel methods of spectroelectrochemistry. This work has led to an increased understanding of molecular adaptations in the respiratory proteins, with a focus on interactions with nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. My comparative studies illustrate aspects of environmental adaptations and mechanisms of toxicity associated with exposure to free radicals and metals. Environmental Education Grants: NSF and Burroughs Welcome grants foster new approaches to communication of environmental problems, coupling the research interests of Duke students and K-12 teachers and students. Director, Duke University Marine/freshwater Biomedical Center

School Division

Marine Science & Conservation Marine Lab


  • Ph.D., University of Texas, Austin (1968)
  • B.A., San Diego State University (1964)

Recent Publications